Configuration Types

ESPHome’s configuration files have several configuration types. This page describes them.


Quite an important aspect of ESPHome are “IDs”. They are used to connect components from different domains. For example, you define an output component together with an ID and then later specify that same ID in the light component. IDs should always be unique within a configuration and ESPHome will warn you if you try to use the same ID twice.

Because ESPHome converts your configuration into C++ code and the IDs are in reality just C++ variable names, they must also adhere to C++’s naming conventions. C++ Variable names

  • … must start with a letter and can end with numbers.

  • … must not have a space in the name.

  • … can not have special characters except the underscore (“_“).

  • … must not be a keyword.


ESPHome always uses the chip-internal GPIO numbers. These internal numbers are always integers like 16 and can be prefixed by GPIO. For example to use the pin with the internal GPIO number 16, you could type GPIO16 or just 16.

Most boards however have aliases for certain pins. For example the NodeMCU ESP8266 uses pin names D0 through D8 as aliases for the internal GPIO pin numbers. Each board (defined in ESPHome section) has their own aliases and so not all of them are supported yet. For example, for the D0 (as printed on the PCB silkscreen) pin on the NodeMCU ESP8266 has the internal GPIO name GPIO16, but also has an alias D0. So using either one of these names in your configuration will lead to the same result.

  pin: GPIO16

  # alias on the NodeMCU ESP8266:
  pin: D0

Pin Schema

In some places, ESPHome also supports a more advanced “pin schema”.

  # Basic:
  pin: D0

  # Advanced:
    number: D0
    inverted: true
      input: true
      pullup: true

Configuration variables:

  • number (Required, pin): The pin number.

  • inverted (Optional, boolean): If all read and written values should be treated as inverted. Defaults to false.

  • mode (Optional, string or mapping): Configures the pin to behave in different modes like input or output. The default value depends on the context. Accepts either a shorthand string or a mapping where each feature can be individually enabled/disabled:

    • input (Optional, boolean): If true, configure the pin as an input.

    • output (Optional, boolean): If true, configure the pin as an output.

    • pullup (Optional, boolean): Activate internal pullup resistors on the pin.

    • pulldown (Optional, boolean): Activate internal pulldown resistors on the pin.

    • open_drain (Optional, boolean): Set the pin to open-drain (as opposed to push-pull). The active pin state will then result in a high-impedance state.

    For compatibility some shorthand modes can also be used.

    • INPUT

    • OUTPUT


    • ANALOG



Advanced options:

  • drive_strength (Optional, string): On ESP32s with esp-idf framework the pad drive strength, i.e. the maximum amount of current can additionally be set. Defaults to 20mA. Options are 5mA, 10mA, 20mA, 40mA.


In lots of places in ESPHome you need to define time periods. There are several ways of doing this. See below examples to see how you can specify time periods:

  some_time_option: 1000us  # 1000 microseconds = 1ms
  some_time_option: 1000ms  # 1000 milliseconds
  some_time_option: 1.5s  # 1.5 seconds
  some_time_option: 0.5min  # half a minute
  some_time_option: 2h  # 2 hours

  # Make sure you wrap these in quotes
  some_time_option: '2:01'  # 2 hours 1 minute
  some_time_option: '2:01:30'  # 2 hours 1 minute 30 seconds

  # 10ms + 30s + 25min + 3h
    milliseconds: 10
    seconds: 30
    minutes: 25
    hours: 3
    days: 0

  # for all 'update_interval' options, also
  update_interval: never  # never update
  update_interval: 0ms  # update in every loop() iteration


Starting with version 1.10.0, ESPHome has a powerful new way to reduce repetition in configuration files: Substitutions. With substitutions, you can have a single generic source file for all nodes of one kind and substitute expressions in.

  devicename: livingroom
  upper_devicename: Livingroom

  name: $devicename
  # ...

- platform: dht
  # ...
    name: ${upper_devicename} Temperature
    name: ${upper_devicename} Humidity

In the top-level substitutions section, you can put as many key-value pairs as you want. Before validating your configuration, ESPHome will automatically replace all occurrences of substitutions by their value. The syntax for a substitution is based on bash and is case-sensitive: $substitution_key or ${substitution_key} (same).

Additionally, you can use the YAML << syntax to create a single YAML file from which a number of nodes inherit:

# In common.yaml
  name: $devicename
  # ...

- platform: dht
  # ...
    name: ${upper_devicename} Temperature
    name: ${upper_devicename} Humidity
# In nodemcu1.yaml
  devicename: nodemcu1
  upper_devicename: NodeMCU 1

<<: !include common.yaml


To hide these base files from the dashboard, you can

  • Place them in a subdirectory (dashboard only shows files in top-level directory)

  • Prepend a dot to the filename, like .base.yaml

Command line substitutions

You can define or override substitutions from the command line by adding e.g. -s KEY VALUE which overrides substitution KEY and gives it value VALUE. This can be issued multiple times, so e.g. with the following example.yaml file:

  name: default
  platform: ESP8266

  name: $name
  platform: $platform
  board: $board

and the following command:

esphome -s name device01 -s board esp01_1m example.yaml config

You will get something like the following output (please note the unchanged platform, added board, and overridden name substitutions):

  name: device01
  platform: ESP8266
  board: esp01_1m
  name: device01
  platform: ESP8266
  board: esp01_1m
  includes: []
  libraries: []
  esp8266_restore_from_flash: false
  build_path: device01
  platformio_options: {}
  arduino_version: [email protected]

We can observe here that command line substitutions take precedence over the ones in your configuration file. This can be used to create generic ‘template’ configuration files (like the example.yaml above) which can be used for multiple devices, using substitutions which are provided on the command line.


Another way to modularize and reuse your configuration is to use packages. This feature allows you to put common pieces of configuration in separate files and keep only unique pieces of your config in the main yaml file. All definitions from packages will be merged with your main config in non-destructive way so you could always override some bits and pieces of package configuration.

Local packages

Consider the following example where the author put common pieces of configuration like WiFi and I²C into base files and extends it with some device specific configurations in the main config.

Note how the piece of configuration describing api component in device_base.yaml gets merged with the services definitions from main config file.

# In config.yaml
  node_name: mydevice
  device_verbose_name: "My Device"

  wifi: !include common/wifi.yaml
  device_base: !include common/device_base.yaml

    - service: start_laundry
        - switch.turn_on: relay
        - delay: 3h
        - switch.turn_off: relay

  - platform: mhz19
      name: "CO2"
      name: "Temperature"
    update_interval: 60s
    automatic_baseline_calibration: false
# In wifi.yaml
  ssid: "your_ssid"
  password: !secret wifi_password
  domain: .yourdomain.lan
  fast_connect: true
# In device_base.yaml
  name: ${node_name}
  platform: ESP32
  board: wemos_d1_mini32
  build_path: ./build/${node_name}

# I²C Bus
  sda: GPIO21
  scl: GPIO22
  scan: true
  frequency: 100kHz

# Enable logging
  level: ${log_level}

  password: !secret hass_api_key
  reboot_timeout: 1h

  - <<: !include common/sensor/uptime.config.yaml
  - <<: !include common/sensor/wifi_signal.config.yaml
  - <<: !include common/binary_sensor/connection_status.config.yaml

  - <<: !include common/switch/restart_switch.config.yaml

Remote/git Packages

Packages can also be loaded from a git repository by utilizing the correct config syntax. Substitutions can be used inside the remote packages which allows users to override them locally with their own subsitution value.

  # Git repo examples
    ref: main # optional
    files: [file1.yml, file2.yml]
    refresh: 1d # optional

  # A single file can be expressed using `file` or `files` as a string
    file: file1.yml # cannot be combined with `files`
    # files: file1.yml

  # shorthand form github://username/repository/[folder/]file-path.yml[@branch-or-tag]
  remote_package_three: github://esphome/non-existant-repo/[email protected]

See Also